Sadhana literally "a means of accomplishing something" is an ego-transcending spiritual practice.
It includes a variety of disciplines that are followed in order to achieve spiritual or ritual objectives.
The goal of sadhana is to attain a level of spiritual realization which can be either enlightenment, pure love of God, liberation from the cycle of birth and death or a particular goal such as the blessings of a deity.
Sadhana can involve meditation, chanting of mantra sometimes with the help of prayer beads, puja (ritual worship) to a deity, yajna (fire ritual) and in very rare cases mortification of the flesh or tantric practices such as performing particular sadhana within a cremation ground.
Traditionally in order to embark on a specific path of sadhana, a guru may be required to give the necessary instructions. This approach is typified by some tantric traditions in which initiation by a guru is sometimes identified as a specific stage of sadhana, on the other hand, individuals may develop their own spiritual practice without participating in organized groups.